Group leaders
Melinda Power
The George Washington University, Washington, USA

Jennifer Weuve
Boston University School of Public Health, USA
Pathological changes in the brain are evident at least two decades prior to clinical diagnosis of dementia. Thus the effect that an exposure exerts on a cognitive-related outcome may depend critically on that exposure’s timing, and the relevant timing likely differs based on whether the exposure influences pathogenesis, disease progression, and/or maintenance of function. Distinguishing the relevant etiologic period for an exposure is essential for guiding clinical decisions and preventive interventions.